|| Malcolm Macdonald

Credits, Acknowledgements, & More

Sun Cross

is a solar symbol, an equilateral cross inside a circle. It is also use to represent the Earth, and as a logical operator to mean an exclusive disjunction.
(XOR: one, not both nor none)

can also mean the direct sum of n matrics, or the Kronecker sum.


Image Credits

Apollo Image Atlas

AS11-36-5293 70mm Hasselblad image from Appollo 11 Details

Apollo Image Atlas

AS11-36-5313 70mm Hasselblad image from Appollo 11 Details

Apollo Image Atlas

AS11-44-6692 70mm Hasselblad image from Appollo 11 Details

Apollo Image Atlas

AS11-44-6693 70mm Hasselblad image from Appollo 11 Details

Tornado GR4 Over RAF Lossiemouth

MOD 45150789 A Tornado GR4 aircraft of 617 Squadron, Royal Air Force, flies high over it's parent station of RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland. The Tornado GR4 is a variable geometry, two-seat, day or night, all-weather attack aircraft, capable of delivering a wide variety of weapons. Powered by two Rolls-Royce RB 199 Mk 103 turbofan engines, the GR4 is capable of low-level supersonic flight and can sustain a high subsonic cruise speed. The aircraft can fly automatically at low level using terrain-following radar when poor weather prevents visual flight. The aircraft is also equipped with forward-looking infrared and is night-vision goggle compatible, making it a capable platform for passive night operations. For navigation purposes, the Tornado is equipped with an integrated global positioning inertial navigation system that can also be updated with visual or radar inputs. The GR4 is also equipped with a Laser Ranger and Marked Target Seeker system that can be used for ground designation or can provide accurate range information on ground targets.Details

UKube-1 spacecraft

In Clyde Space cleanroom. Credit: Clyde Space.


A set of Planet Labs CubeSats is photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member after the deployment by the NanoRacks Launcher attached to the end of the Japanese robotic arm on the International Space Station. Details


CubeSats being released from the International Space Station’s Kibo module on 4 October 2012 as photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member. Details

Expedition 45/46 crew

Tim Kopra, Yuri Malenchenko and Tim Peake in front of Soyuz simulator. Credit: UKSA-M. Alexander. Details

Tim Peake

Dressing up in the Sokol suit for Soyuz exams at Star City. Credits: UKSA-M. Alexander. Details

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin

Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968).

Tiros 1 and NOAA-15 comparison

A comparison between TIROS-1 (April 1960) and the same region imaged by NOAA-15 in 2000.

President John F. Kennedy

Kennedy proposing a program to Congress that will land men on the Moon, May 1961. Details

President Ronald Reagan

President Reagan giving the State of the 1984 Union Address to Congress in 1984. Details

Tim Peake Soyuz

ESA astronaut Tim Peake in his Sokol suit he will wear on launch day, 15 December 2015. Details

The International Space Station with ATV-2 and Endeavour

This image of the International Space Station with the docked Europe's ATV Johannes Kepler and Space Shuttle Endeavour was taken by Expedition 27 crew member Paolo Nespoli from the Soyuz TMA-20 following its undocking on 24 May 2011. Details


Main Control Room at ESOC, ESA's operations centre in Darmstadt, Germany. Details

The Interact Centaur Rover

The Interact Centaur Rover, designed and manufactured by the ESA Telerobotics & Haptics Lab, approaching a task board to demonstrate a mechanical assembly task though teleoperation from space to ground, on 28 August 2015. Details

Scott Kelly and Kjell Lindgren

On the International Space Station tasting the 1st food grown, harvested and eaten in space in August 2015. Details


Driving away from the Chang’e-4 lander.

Musa Bay, Iran

Musa Bay, Iran (lat. 30.2636 & long 49.3142). Credit: European Union, contains modified Copernicus Sentinel-2 L2A true colour data from 29 December 2018. Processed with EO Browser.

A Spire Global spacecraft

Under construction in Glasgow. Credit: Spire Global.


Photo by Artur Kraft on Unsplash. Details


Cloud free image of Scotland

Credit: European Union, contains modified Copernicus data. Processed with EO Browser.

Lemur-2 CubeSat

One of Spire’s Lemur-2 CubeSat’s built in Scotland in their in-house test facilities. Credit: Spire Global.

Wastwater, Elterwater, United Kingdom

Photo by John Gouch on Unsplash. Details

Tontine Lane

Glasgow. Details


MIRI, the mid-infrared camera and spectrograph (left), was installed in the science payload module of the James Webb Space Telescope (right) on 29 April 2013 at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Credit: NASA. Details

Scotland’s First Minister

Nicola Sturgeon, holds a CubeSat structure during a visit to the Clyde Space cleanroom. Credit: Scottish Government. Details

Rocket Labs Electron rocket

At the Mahia Peninsula launch site in New Zealand. Credit: Rocket Labs USA.

ESA's ExoMars rover

Rosalind Franklin, (foreground) and Russia's stationary surface science platform, Kazachok, (background). Image credit: ESA. Details

Mars Helicopter Scout

A small, autonomous rotorcraft, which will travel with NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission to demonstrate the viability and potential of heavier-than-air vehicles on the Red Planet. Image credit: NASA. Details

Solar Orbiter

Artist impression. Image credit: ESA. Details

Boeing's CST-100 Starliner

On a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket, December 2019 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Image credit: NASA. Details

NEA Scout

With its solar sail deployed as it characterizes a near-Earth asteroid. Image credit: NASA. Details


Moves into position for attachment to Cosmic Girl. Image credit: Virgin Orbit. Details

Starlink spacecraft

60 starlink spacecraft ready for launch. Image credit: SpaceX Details


SpaceX Starlink satellites crossing the sky as seen by the Global Meteor Network from La Palma, Canary Islands. Stars trail in the back on arcs. Details


NOAA-19, designated NOAA-N' (NOAA-N Prime) prior to launch, suffered an accident prior to launch which resulted in it falling off its clean room mounting at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems factory in Sunnyvale, California, resulting in significant damage. After being repaired, NOAA-19 was launched on 6 February 2009. Details

Credits & Acknowledgments

Throughout this site open-source code is used. Below is a list of sources.



Contact Information

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
James Weir Building
75 Montrose Street
Glasgow, G1 1XJ